History & Facts of Arkansas Counties

Arkansas County records can vary extensively from county to county both in quality not to mention quantity. Some happen to have been carefully maintained and some have been much mistreated and overlooked. A certain amount of Arkansas records have merely vanished. For genealogists undertaking research in Arkansas there's no effective replace to have an on-site search of county court house records.

Arkansas is divided into 75 counties. Each county serves as the local level of government within its borders. There are 10 Counties with 2 County Seats.

Arkansas Counties

The county clerk in each Arkansas county holds vital records, probate records, and land records. Researchers should note, however, that there are two courthouses in some Arkansas counties. County clerks may also have some court records on file, but those records are more likely to be found at the circuit court clerk's office.

Generally, there are no online services for most counties in the state. However, the county judge's office can be contacted for information on county records.

Researchers should keep in mind that the 1914 death and birth registration requirement wasn't followed well for nearly a decade after it was passed. Boundary changes and divisions of counties over the years may also have a large impact on whether or not records exist and, if so, where they can be found.

County Date Formed Parent County County Seat
Arkansas 1813 1st County (Eastern Arkansas) De Witt and
Stuttgart
Ashley 1848 Drew and Union counties Hamburg
Baxter 1873 Fulton, Izard, Marion, and Searcy counties Mountain Home
Benton 1836 Washington County Bentonville
Boone 1869 Carroll and Marion counties Harrison
Bradley 1840 Union County Warren
Calhoun 1850 Dallas and Ouachita counties Hampton
Carroll 1833 Izard County and later by Madison County (1870) Berryville and
Eureka Springs
Chicot 1823 Arkansas County Lake Village
Clark 1818 Arkansas (1818) Arkadelphia
Clay 1873 Randolph and Greene counties, and originally named Clayton before 1875 Piggott and
Corning
Cleburne 1883 White, Van Buren, and Independence counties Heber Springs
Cleveland 1873 Bradley, Dallas, Jefferson counties, and formerly named Dorsey County (from 1885) Rison
Columbia 1852 Formed from Lafayette, Hempstead, and Ouachita counties Magnolia
Conway 1825 Pulaski County Morrilton
Craighead 1859 Mississippi, Greene, Poinsett counties Jonesboro and
Lake City
Crawford 1820 Pulaski County Van Buren
Crittenden 1825 Phillips County Marion
Cross 1862 St. Francis, Poinsett, and Crittenden counties Wynne
Dallas 1845 Clark and Bradley counties Fordyce
Desha 1838 Arkansas, Union counties, then from Chicot County (prior to 1880), and Lincoln (prior 1930) Arkansas City
Drew 1846 Bradley, Chicot, Desha, Union counties Monticello
Faulkner 1873 Pulaski and Conway counties Conway
Franklin 1837 Crawford and Johnson counties Ozark and
Charleston
Fulton 1842 Izard County and then later from Lawrence County (prior 1850) Salem
Garland 1873 Montgomery, Hot Springs, and Saline counties Hot Springs
Grant 1869 Jefferson, Hot Spring, Saline counties Sheridan
Greene 1833 Lawrence County and later on by Randolph Paragould
Hempstead 1818 Arkansas (1818) Hope
Hot Springs 1829 Clark County and later from Montgomery County (prior 1880) Malvern
Howard 1873 Pike, Hempstead, Polk, Sevier counties. Nashville
Independence 1820 Lawrence County (1820) Batesville
Izard 1825 Independence, Crawford counties, and later from Fulton (prior 1880) Melbourne
Jackson 1829 Lawrence and St. Francis counties Newport
Jefferson 1829 Arkansas and Pulaski Pine Bluff
Johnson 1833 Pope County, and a small portion from Madison County (prior 1890) Clarksville
Lafayette 1827 Hempstead County and later from Columbia County (prior 1910) Lewisville
Lawrence 1815 Arkansas and New Madrid (MO) in 1815 Walnut Ridge
Lee 1873 Phillips, Monroe, Crittenden, and St. Francis counties. Marianna
Lincoln 1871 Arkansas, Bradley, Desha, Drew, and Jefferson counties Star City
Little River 1867 Sevier County Ashdown
Logan 1871 Franklin, Johnson, Pope, Scott, and Yell counties (Formally named Sarber County) Booneville and
Paris
Lonoke 1873 Prairie and Pulaski counties Lonoke
Madison 1836 Washington County Huntsville
Marion 1835 Izard County Yellville
Miller 1874 Lafayette County Texarkana
Mississippi 1833 Crittenden Blytheville and
Osceola
Monroe 1829 Phillips and Arkansas counties Clarendon
Montgomery 1842 Hot Spring Mount Ida
Nevada 1871 Columbia, Hempstead, Ouachita counties Prescott
Newton 1842 Carroll Jasper
Ouachita 1842 Union Camden
Perry 1840 Conway County Perryville
Phillips 1820 Arkansas and Lawrence County Helena
Pike 1833 Clark and Hempstead counties Murfreesboro
Poinsett 1838 Greene, Lawrence counties Harrisburg
Polk 1844 Sevier Mena
Pope 1829 Crawford County Russellville
Prairie 1846 Arkansas and Pulaski counties Des Arc and
DeValls Bluff
Pulaski 1818 Arkansas and Lawrence counties (1818) Little Rock
Randolph 1835 Lawrence County Pocahontas
St. Francis 1827 Formed from Phillips County Forrest City
Saline 1835 Independence and Pulaski Benton
Scott 1833 Crawford and Pope counties Waldron
Searcy 1838 Marion County Marshall
Sebastian 1851 Crawford and Scott Greenwood and
Fort Smith
Sevier 1828 Hempstead County De Queen
Sharp 1868 Lawrence County Ash Flat
Stone 1873 Izard, Independence, Searcy, Van Buren Mountain View
Union 1829 Clark and Hempstead counties El Dorado
Van Buren 1833 Conway, Izard, and Independece Clinton
Washington 1828 Lovely County Fayetteville
White 1835 Independence, Jackson and Pulaski counties Searcy
Woodruff 1862 Jackson and St. Francis counties Augusta
Yell 1840 Hot Spring, Pope, and Scott County Danville and Dardanelle

Arkansas Extinct Counties

Arkansas seems to have counties that no longer exist. They were set up by the state, provincial, or territorial authorities. Many of these counties were established and disbanded within the 19th century; county borders have adjusted very little since 1900 in the vast number of states. These counties need to be investigated when doing ancestry and genealogy research. Pay attention where the courthouse records went to if the county was abolished or merged with another county.

  • Dorsey County, AR: Renamed Cleveland County in 1885
  • Lovely County, AR: Lovely County was Formed on October 13, 1827, from Crawford County and the Lovely Purchase. Lovely County included more of present day Oklahoma than present day Arkansas. The Oklahoma portion of the County was lost to Arkansas in 1828 with the Cherokee Treaty of that year. Most of the remainder became Washington County on October 27, 1828. Parts of Lovely County was used to form the following counties: Washington Other county boundry changes occured when According to D.Y. Thomas, "In 1816, William and Peter Lovely purchased a tract of land from the Osage Indians, which was included within the western boundary of Arkansas, as laid down in 1824, and was a large part of the county of Lovely, created in 1827. Unfortunately, this same region had been granted to the Cherokee Indians in 1818, creating difficulties which were not settled until 1828, when the present boundary of the State was established, and the most of Lovely County made a part of the Indian Territory. Such land as was left by this decision was included in Washington County, October 27, 1828, and the county officials were directed to take over the affiars and moneys of Lovely County."
  • Old Miller County, AR: Formed on 1 April 1820 from Hempstead County. In 1828 a boundry change left old miller County entirely in Texas. In 1838, it was abolished to create Red River County, Texas. Extant records are at Arkansas History Commision includes Probate (1830-1838), Circuit Court (1830-1835), and Tax records (1832-1837). There was a courthouse fire in 1828. Available records for Old Miller County are in the George T. Wright Collection, Miller County Records, Territory of Arkansas, July 20, 1835 - March 17, 1838, University of Texas, Austin. Probate records have been published - see Old Miller County under books for sale www.ArkansasResearch.com
  • New Madrid County, AR: Now located in Missouri
  • Sarber County, AR: Formed on March 22, 1871 as Sarber County, Name changed to Logan in December 15, 1875

Arkansas Counties with Burned Courthouses

The harm to Arkansas courthouses considerably has a bearing on family historians in each and every way. Not only are most of these historic structures torn from all of our lifetimes, so are the documents they housed: marriage, wills, probate, land records, among others. Once destroyed they are lost forever. Although they happen to have been put on mircofilm, computers and film burn as well. The most tragic side of this is the reason that virtually all of our courthouses are destroyed at the hands of arsonist. However, you cannot assume all records were damaged or lost. A number of Arkansas counties have suffered a loss of records due to courthouse fires, floods, and theft.

  • Ashley County Courthouse - A courthouse fire in 1921 destroyed most of the county's records.
  • Benton County Courthouse - S.J. Bloucher in 1906 makes no mention of record loss; however, Arkansas History Commission sources say an "1865 courthouse fire destroyed many early records." D.Y. Thomas mentiones a log courthouse built in 1837, a brick structure in 1840, and another brick courthouse built in 1873, but does not mention a fire.
  • Carroll County Courthouse - A fire in December, 1869, destroyed all the county records. Arkansas History Commission information says there was a courthouse fire in 1870.
  • Clay County Courthouse - It is reported "the will and deed records begin in April, 1881, and are complete to date except deed record E from March 1, 1891, to January 31, 1892. This record was burned. The following records are missing: Book E named above, the entire records of Clayton County, and the records of Clay County from December 1875, to February 29 [sic], 1893. The latter records were burned at Piggott when the courthouse was destroyed by fire.
  • Cleveland County Courthouse - It is reported, "the records are incomplete and some are not in good condition. Several tax books, one marriage record, and one or more court records are missing."
  • Conway County Courthouse - Lewisburg, situated on the Arkansas River, was subject to periodic floods - some records were lost; a fire about 1899 destroyed and damaged some records; loose probate packets date from 1899.
  • Craighead County Courthouse - It was reported, "All records were destroyed by a fire in 1869 and again in 1878. The records are therefore incomplete. Since 1886, the records have been kept in a fire-proof vault and no records have been injured or lost since March 28, 1878."
  • Crawford County Courthouse - It was reported, "The records from 1818 to 1820 are on file at Little Rock. On March 23, 1877, the courthouse was destroyed by fire and all records were destroyed except those of the treasurer and a few deeds and mortgages. Since that date, however, the records are complete and are kept in fire-proof vaults."
  • Crittenden County Courthouse - It was reported, "The records of this county are intact except that during the reconstruction period, a few pages of the deed records and of the chancery court records were mutilated, and the taxbooks for the year 1878 are missing. There are deed records much older than the county and the original deed records, A and B, are now hardly legible. Many of these early deeds are in Spanish. The records are in good state of preservation with the exceptions named above."
  • Desha County Courthouse - Information from the Arkansas History Commission indicates record loss from a courthouse fire in the 1860s.
  • Faulkner County Courthouse - It was reported the records complete despite a courthouse fire; the records were stored in a fire-proof vault. Note: I, Desmond Walls Allen, personally climbed into the courthouse Dumpster in the mid-1980s and fished out many of the loose probate packets that had been dumped in with the Kentucky Fried Chicken boxes, etc., from the sheriff's department's lunch. Three of us dried the records in my momma's microwave oven, arranged them in folders, took them to be microfilmed at the Arkansas History Commission, then placed the records in the University of Central Arkansas' Archives in Torreyson Library in Conway. Some of the records are now stored in what used to be the old jail.
  • Franklin County Courthouse - It was reported, "The records of the county, common pleas, probate, and circuit courts are complete from the date of the first court in 1839. The deed and mortgage records are incomplete; the courthouse was burned in 1863, but G.H. Ross, the clerk, saved from the fire all except the deed records. Since that date the deed records are complete. The records of the Charleston district are complete from 1891, they having been burned in that year. For the most part however, they have been rewritten."
  • Fulton County Courthouse - Material from the Arkansas History Commission indicates a fire in 1870 destroyed most county records.
  • Garland County Courthouse - In 1906, C.D. Greaves reported the records "were complete until Feb. 25, 1905, when fire and heat charred, damaged, or destroyed everything except tax books of 1904 then in the hands of the collector. The deed and mortgage records, except two, have been recopied or reproduced as they were left after the fire, edges being badly burned and only portions legible. As records will have considerable value, these consist of books designated by alphabet (26) and about 39 by number, 1 to 39. Circuit court records were totally destroyed, 10 books; chancery records practically destroyed, book I has been recopied, 8 (A to H) being burned. Probate records all except last one destroyed; so also the county court records, the marriage license records were partially destroyed, one will record burned, one partially restored, mechanic's lien judgement record destroyed, probate docket partially restored, pending cases in chancery court partially saved, all law and probate papers destroyed. The county never had vaults. New courthouse just completed... has complete set of vaults." Garland County apparently had another serious fire in 1913.
  • Grant County Courthouse - It was reported all the records destroyed through Mar. 13, 1877, but complete thereafter and kept in fire-proof vaults.
  • Greene County Courthouse - A courthouse fire in 1876 destroyed most records.
  • Hempstead County Courthouse - It was reported the circuit court records complete from March 15, 1824; deed records complete since Oct. 9, 1820; records prior lost through "carelessness of officials"; first record of county court dated 1837.
  • Izard County Courthouse - It was reported the loss of all records before April 11, 1869; information from the Arkansas History Commission indicates another fire in 1889 destroyed all county records.
  • Little River County Courthouse - It was reported the following records missing: county court records from 1867 to Jan. 1876, destroyed by fire in 1882; marriage record from 1867 to Dec. 1880, cause of destruction unknown; real estate tax books from 1867 to 1882, destroyed by fire in 1882. At that time records were kept in "a temporary courthouse, an unsafe frame building."
  • Logan County Courthouse - It was reported all records from county formation to 1878 destroyed by fire.
  • Madison County Courthouse - It was reported the probate records complete from 1860; county court records complete from 1873; will records complete from 1880; deed records complete from 1843. A fire in 1902 destroyed deed record A and all will records except those recorded on court records.
  • Marion County Courthouse - Arkansas History Commission sources say a courthouse fire in 1888 destroyed many of the records.
  • Old Miller County Courthouse - There was a courthouse fire in 1828. Available records for Old Miller County are in the George T. Wright Collection, Miller County Records, Territory of Arkansas, July 20, 1835 - March 17, 1838, University of Texas, Austin. Probate records have been published - see Old Miller County under books for sale www.ArkansasResearch.com
  • Mississippi County Courthouse- Arkansas History Commission information shows record loss from a courthouse fire in 1865.
  • Newton County Courthouse - It was reported all records destroyed by a fire in 1866 but complete from that time.
  • Ouachita County Courthouse - It was reported all records destroyed by a fire, Dec. 19, 1875; but complete since that time.
  • Perry County Courthouse - It was reported one small chancery volume saved in the 1881 fire and the records complete from that time.
  • Phillips County Courthouse - It was reported most of the records intact though some were "slightly damaged by being moth-eaten"; records were removed during the War but returned in good condition; entries kept in "Irregular D" volume while records were gone.
  • Pike County Courthouse - Arkansas History Commission sources report destruction of most records in an 1895 courthouse fire; an abstract book was saved.
  • Poinsett County Courthouse - It was reported loss of all records in a courthouse fire Sept. 1873, but complete since that time.
  • Polk County Courthouse - It was reported all records prior to 1883 destroyed in a courthouse fire except one probate record dating from Sept. 1876, one county court record dating from July 1876, and one circuit court record dating from Feb. 1877.
  • Prairie County Courthouse - It was reported the records destroyed by an Sept. 16, 1854 fire at Brownsville but complete from 1855 and kept in fire-proof vaults.
  • St. Francis County Courthouse - It was reported a fire in the latter part of 1874 destroyed many of the county records, but many of the deed records were only partially burned. They have since been recopied as far as possible. All the records were destroyed by fire during the War. They are therefore complete since 1874, and almost complete since 1865.
  • Scott County Courthouse - Arkansas History Commission sources show a courthouse fire in 1882 destroyed all records.
  • Searcy County Courthouse - It was reported destruction of the records in Jan. 1864, partial destruction in March 1877, and destruction again in Aug. 1885. "All records prior to 1881 are missing except deed record A, one chancery court record, one probate court record, one circuit court record."
  • Sebastian County Courthouse - It was reported the courthouse at Greenwood burned in 1881 and again in 1882, "but few records being saved. All records since 1882 are in good condition and those prior to that date have been recopied as far as possible."
  • Sharp County Courthouse - It was reported a fire of Jan. 20, 1880, destroyed all the county records, but they are complete from that time, housed in fire-proof vaults at Evening Shade and Hardy. The newspaper editor of the Sharp County Record published marriages prior to the fire. See the books by this publisher.
  • Van Buren County Courthouse - It was reported "Nearly all county records were destroyed by fire in 1863. A few of the old books were hidden by the clerk in a cliff and were thus saved. Records are complete since 1863 and are in a fair state of preservation.
  • Washington County Courthouse - It was reported, "County court records are complete from Aug. 3, 1835; probate records from Oct. 9, 1837; marriage records from 1845, except the record of the period between 1861 and 1864. Probate and will records, A and B, were stolen. During the War, Presley R. Smith, clerk, hid the county records in a dry case in the mountains south of Fayetteville to prevent their falling into the hands of the Federals. Only one record was thus lost. The records are in good condition and are kept in fire-proof vaults."
  • Yell County Courthouse - It was reported records complete since 1865. "In addition for the period prior to 1865, the county has the probate records from May 7, 1858, to Feb. 10, 1862; the marriage records from July 23, 1841, to Mar. 24, 1849; and the deed records from Mar. 2, 1841, to Dec. 4, 1848. The missing records were destroyed by fire during the War."
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